Thyroid disorder: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism – causes, symptoms and treatment

Thyroid gland secretes hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine which are responsible for maintaining metabolism and thermogenesis (warmth generating and keeping the body at a constant temperature). It may happen that thyroid gland doesn’t work the right way which leads either to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism – causes, symptoms and treatment.

thyroid-disorder.jpgHypothyroidism – causes:

  • thyroiditis (frequently during chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis),
  • shortage of iodine,
  • receiving some medication,
  • thyroid gland surgery or its complete/partial removal,
  • thyroid hypoplasia (a kind of thyroid underdevelopment),

Hypothyroidism can be either innate or occurs as a consequence of hypopituitarism and hypothalamus disorders.

Hypothyroidism – symptoms:

  • drowsiness,
  • slowness and faster exhaustion,
  • dry, rough and cool skin,
  • hair loss and nail fragility,
  • feeling of cold,
  • constipation,
  • uncontrolled body mass gain,
  • so-called submucosal edema which causes bulking facial features out (eyelid and hand swelling),
  • slowing down activity of the heart and shallow breathing,
  • hoarse voice.

Hypothyroidism – treatment

Hypothyroidism is treated by substituting hormones the gland produces. In most cases it is levothyroxine.

Hyperthyroidism – causes:

  • hyperactive nodular goiters or presence of a single, autonomic node secreting thyroid gland hormones,
  • thyroiditis,
  • malignancy on thyroid gland,
  • receiving some medication.

Hyperthyroidism frequently occurs in relation to struma basedowiana. It’s an autoimmune disease that makes an organism produce antibodies stimulating particular receptors to produce thyroid gland hormones.

Hyperthyroidism – symptoms:

  • accelerated heart rate,
  • high blood pressure,
  • frequently improper ECG trace,
  • nodular goiter,
  • disturbed hormone level – low level of TSH, and high level of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

Hyperthyroidism – treatment

Treatment depends on receiving preparations which are expected to regulate hormone level. Sometimes it is radioactive iodine and beta blocking agents complementary therapy, which are medications that regulate disturbed heart action. It also happens that surgery is needed. The decision is made after recognizing malignant tumour in thyroid gland.

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